Leetcode: 13. Roman to Integer

Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbols: I, V, X, L, C, D and M.

Symbol       Value
I             1
V             5
X             10
L             50
C             100
D             500
M             1000

For example, two is written as II in Roman numeral, just two one’s added together. Twelve is written as, XII, which is simply X + II. The number twenty seven is written as XXVII, which is XX + V + II.

Roman numerals are usually written largest to smallest from left to right. However, the numeral for four is not IIII. Instead, the number four is written as IV. Because the one is before the five we subtract it making four. The same principle applies to the number nine, which is written as IX. There are six instances where subtraction is used:

I can be placed before V (5) and X (10) to make 4 and 9.
X can be placed before L (50) and C (100) to make 40 and 90.
C can be placed before D (500) and M (1000) to make 400 and 900.
Given a roman numeral, convert it to an integer. Input is guaranteed to be within the range from 1 to 3999.

Example 1:

Input: "III"
Output: 3

Example 2:

Input: "IV"
Output: 4

Example 3:

Input: "IX"
Output: 9

Example 4:

Input: "LVIII"
Output: 58

Explanation: L = 50, V= 5, III = 3.
Example 5:

Input: "MCMXCIV"
Output: 1994

Explanation: M = 1000, CM = 900, XC = 90 and IV = 4.

题解:
将字符串转为列表,用字典将所有组合存储起来,然后依次遍历并索引取值,并将结果相加。

代码:

class Solution:
    def romanToInt(self, s: str) -> int:
        s = list(s)
        num = 0
        if str is None:
            return None

        romandict = {  
            'I' : 1,
            'IV': 4,      
            'V' : 5,
            'IX': 9,
            'X' : 10,
            'XL': 40,
            'L' : 50,
            'XC': 90,
            'C' : 100,
            'CD': 400,
            'D' : 500,
            'CM': 900,
            'M' : 1000
        }   
        while(len(s) >= 2):
            if (s[0] + s[1]) in romandict:
                num += romandict[(s[0] + s[1])]
                s = s[2:]
            else:
                num += romandict[s[0]]
                s = s[1:]
        if(len(s) >= 1):
            num += romandict[s[0]]
            s = s[1:]

        return num
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